Your house: Ecology, Sewage, Waste

In our number 50, we started a conversation about technologies for processing wastewater and other products of human life.

Today, as promised, siding contractors in bay area will consider a number of issues that precede or are closely related to the issue of processing human waste products. Then you and I will be able to look at the problem of “comfort in the house” as if in a complex. Let’s start in order.

  1. The condition of the construction site – its situation and environmental hazards. You have an idea to build your own house. Moreover, a house for long-term residence, so that children and grandchildren can live in it. The first thing they usually start with is choosing the area of ​​the building, choosing the location of the future plot, then choosing the project of the house itself and starting construction. Needless to say, all these issues must be taken into account. The area is important – it can be “prestigious” or “not so prestigious”.

It is important that friends and acquaintances live somewhere nearby. The project is probably the same important detail. But the choice of a place based on prestige is a purely personal matter and is mainly determined by the wealth of the family, or, simply put, by the amount you have at your disposal to carry out this entire operation. And we will not discuss this issue. Today we propose to discuss how to correctly choose a site for building a house from the point of view of environmental cleanliness. Choose so that neither you nor your grandchildren later want to suddenly suddenly move to another place, refusing to live in a built house.

It seems that everything is simple – I arrived, took a look, saw a beautiful forest nearby, a wonderful sunny meadow on which the future house will stand, I liked everything, I spoke with those present right away as a representative of the selling company or intermediary company and made a decision. In reality, everything is not quite so simple. The fact is that our visual sensations do not always fully reflect the real picture. For example, behind this beautiful forest, literally half a kilometer away, there is a large garbage dump. It is not visible behind the forest, and even its smell is not perceptible, but it definitely has its influence on the ecological situation in the area adjacent to it. And this influence, as a rule, is bad.

2. Necessity of analysis of water from a water source. First of all, every landfill can affect water sources, including underground. So, first of all, it is necessary to solve the question – where will you get water when you build this very long-awaited house. The person who sells you the site is simply obliged to answer this question – will it be a well, a well, or will there be (or already is) a water pipe in the village. At the same time, it is important to know from which horizon the water will be taken, and if there is already a water intake from this horizon (for example, one of the built houses already has a well), then ask to show you the analysis of this water.

If there is no analysis for some reason, do not be lazy, fill a plastic bottle with the same water (just under the throat), wrap it with a cork and take it with you for the analysis. You need to do the same water analysis before you purchase the land. In the water analysis, there may be an increased content of iron, manganese, hardness salts and even organic matter.

If the content of only these elements is high in your water, then there is nothing to worry about. The most important thing is to analyze the water for general toxicity. If the general toxicity and biology of the water is normal, then everything else is small things, which are technically not so difficult to eliminate. To understand how this is done, it is enough to refer, for example, to the series of articles published by your magazine on water purification.

First of all, there are practically no districts that would not sin with an increased content of the specified elements (all at once or some of them). The reason for the increased iron content is because many woods are covered with old tractors and other products of the Iron Age. industrial district and there is no way out of this. The increased content of hardness salts is due to their high content in the soil. Secondly, a good water treatment system can help get rid of the increased content of all these elements. So, with this analysis, you can safely buy the proposed plot of land.

The main thing is general toxicity and biology (by the way, good laboratories do this analysis in just one day). If the general toxicity and biology in your analysis exceeded the norms, then it is better not to take the proposed site. Of course, you can do a second analysis (to avoid a mistake), and if it confirms the first one, then no matter how good a place is offered to you, you should definitely refuse the purchase. The fact is that it is quite difficult to find out the cause of high toxicity and bacterial contamination. The reason for this could be the same dump (and, most likely, it is exactly the same), which is behind the forest, although I know, because the so-called “leachate” flows from this dump.

Today, “leachate” flows from all landfills, because today there is not a single landfill that is equipped as it should be – with the removal and cleaning of this very “leachate”. Work has just begun at the only landfill in the Dmitrivsky district, where the first leachate treatment plant is designed (it should be built in 1999). A landfill is a huge technological construction, which has a bottom, and the bottom is waterproofed, where leachate is collected, where there are wells and special pumping stations, where there are treatment facilities with special cleaning technology. In general, this entire system must ensure that the leachate never enters open water bodies or aquifers.

This work has just started today. The Institute of Physical Chemistry participated in the creation of the installation. In the future, it is planned to be equipped with such installations. This technology involves the collection of leachate, which in no case can be “released” freely, they say, until it seeps through the soil, everything can be cleaned by itself. After all, everyone knows perfectly well that it is impossible to pour sewage and toxic waste into a reservoir or on open ground without preliminary cleaning.

And what is better filtrate?

Thus, it is no less poisonous, and in many cases, much more dangerous than waste from chemical production. For example, the value of the content of harmful organic matter in ordinary household sewage, which is determined by the indicator of biological absorption of oxygen (in other words, how much oxygen must be given to biological structures so that they oxidize this organic matter under the conditions of biological purification), is within 200-250 mg of oxygen / l. In the leachate, this value can reach tens of thousands of units, i.e. These indicators differ by several orders of magnitude, so that the leachate is not just “dirty and bad-smelling water” oozing from under the garbage heap. No, no, don’t think about it, no one is going to scare anyone with leachate, you just can’t hide from the population what it is and how dangerous it is.

Each of us has repeatedly seen an example of the environmental danger of leachate with our own eyes, perhaps without giving it much importance. Filtrate is exactly the “poison” that causes the death of trees adjacent to the landfill. It would seem that they grow in the middle of a pile of fertilizers, there is plenty of water, but they do not grow, and those that managed to grow before the formation of a landfill die. Isn’t this the most obvious proof of leachate toxicity.

Due to the specifics of our economic situation today, landfills have turned into a fairly effective area of ​​income. Previously, it was, so to speak, an underground income, which was repeatedly broadcast to us by central television even in the stagnant period. Today, when landfills are almost sold to almost private companies, when landfills are managed not by regional bodies, but by district ones, and there are neither many nor few of them, about 80, today they are becoming practically uncontrollable. And since it becomes uncontrollable, and since it is profitable, then by definition it enters the sphere of action of “semi-criminal” elements – the same elements that can do anything for the sake of income.

Therefore, if today there are “peaceful” paper, wood and reinforced concrete in your landfill, it does not mean that everything else, including hospital waste, will not appear there tomorrow.

Whether we like it or not, underground water lenses are often associated with external bodies of water. By polluting external water bodies, we unwittingly pollute underground ones as well. Of course, this largely depends on the filtering ability of the soil layer, isolating surface and underground water. But we can never be sure that this layer reliably isolates groundwater from the same, at first glance, insignificant discharges from the landfill. As a result, these “insignificant” flows can “poison” an underground lens of a fairly large volume and, as a result, “poison” the lives of many people who use water from this underground source.

3. Selection of filters based on analysis results. Of course, it is worth considering that the more “harmless” impurities in your water, such as iron, manganese, calcium, organic matter, the more money you will have to invest in a water treatment system (water treatment), but if everything else is the location of the site, etc. – If you are satisfied, then you can buy a plot. How to build a water treatment system – “Remont and Construction” magazine described in detail in its series of articles. There are excellent filters that remove iron, soften water, absorb organic matter, you can use ultrafilters made of hollow fibers, reverse osmosis, with which you can even desalinate salt water. It is not recommended to drink water after this reverse osmosis, because the water is desalted so much that it resembles distilled water.

But this trouble is easily rectified, you just need to mix purified water with the original in a certain proportion, and you will get excellent, very tasty water (decent companies, having real specialists, will easily solve this problem). Of course, we are used to (or maybe not yet used to) trusting the services of specialists. The image of the “eternal subject” of the plumber, which over a long period of “stagnation” has become firmly rooted in our consciousness, may be to blame for this.


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